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Lesson 1 Project- eating wisely

develop communication skills

Lesson 2 food links
Lesson 3 working as a team
Lesson 4 Food pyramid


Lesson 5 a 2,000 calorie-a-day diet
Lesson 6 encourager- bible says





Lesson 8  
Lesson 9  
Lesson 10  

Lesson 1 project- eating wisely

Wk 2

Getting into groups / Establishing rules / Building teamwork / Developing group roles 


Wk 2

Research and Gathering of Information 


Wk 3-4

Preparing the Scrap Book  (Group)


Wk 5

Coming up with a recipe for a healthy snack (Individual)


Wk 6

Mathematics component connected to eating wisely


Wk 7

Scrap Book Cover Designing


Wk 8-9

Show & Tell 


Wk 10

Reflections on learning and teamwork




Lesson 2  food links

food labels

healthy eating


Lesson 3  working as a team   




Lesson 4    FOOD PYRAMID



Other Nutrients:

Carbohydrate-rich foods are the primary source of energy for all body functions. Your body breaks down carbohydrates, or carbs, into fuel for use by your cells and muscles - that's why eating a moderate amount of carbohydrates is necessary for most people.

There are two types of carbs - sugars and starches.

Sugars are simple carbohydrates that can be easily digested by your body and include foods like cake, soda, candy, jellies and fruits.

Starches are complex carbohydrates that take longer to be digested and include foods such as breads, grains, pasta, tortillas, noodles, fruits and vegetables.

Many carbohydrate-rich foods are loaded with other nutrients. Fruits and vegetables are not only great carbohydrate sources, they âre also excellent suppliers of vitamins A and C and many other vitamins and minerals. Most dairy products are also great sources of carbohydrates.

Some foods rich in carbohydrates have fewer nutrients. Foods made from sugar (white, brown, powdered and raw) as well as corn syrup, honey and molasses are simple carbohydrates that provide little to the diet except extra calories, and too many extra calories in the diet can lead to excess body fat.

Use the top layer of the Food Guide Pyramid as your guide, and limit your consumption of sugary foods - even if they do contain carbohydrates.

Quality Carbohydrate Choices

Do most of the carbs in your diet come from cookies, cakes and sugary foods? You don't necessarily need to cut back on the number of carbohydrates you eat, but you should try to eat foods that provide your body with more nutrients and less fat and sugar. Here are a few tips for making better carbohydrate choices:

  • If you eat white bread, switch to bread made with stone ground whole-wheat flour. You can use it for sandwiches or French toast or you can grind it into breadcrumbs.
  • If you like to snack on crackers that are high in fat and sodium, switch to whole-wheat crackers. For example, Triscuits are made with whole wheat, and come in reduced-fat and low-sodium varieties.
  • Drinking milk is a great way to load up on quality carbs, but whole milk has a high fat content. Choose 1%, skim or skim milk fortified with calcium instead. Begin weaning yourself off whole milk by using skim for cooking and baking first before using it on cereal.
  • Learn how to use sugar and oil replacements in your cooking. Instead of oil, use applesauce or pureed prunes in muffins and cakes. Instead of sugar, Splenda and stevia are sweet-tasting replacers that can be used to prepare your food and drinks.

How Many Carbohydrates Should I Eat?

Most medical experts say that 60 percent of the calories you eat every day should come from carbohydrates.

To find out how many carbohydrates you need, multiply the number of calories you need by .6. For example, if you need 2,000 calories per day, 2,000 multiplied by .6 = 1,200. So you know you need 1,200 calories from carbohydrates. There are 4 calories in a gram of carbohydrate. Take your 1,200 calories and divide by 4 = 300 grams. Knowing the calories and the carbohydrate grams you need will help you when you are reading a food label.

Role of Carbohydrates

Sugars and starches are important carbohydrates that we take in often. Carbohydrates provide a great part of the energy in our diets. Foods rich in carbohydrates, including potatoes, bread, and maize, are usually the most abundant and cheapest when compared with foods high in protein and fat content. Carbohydrates are burned during body processes to produce energy, giving out carbon dioxide and water. Starches are found mainly in grains, legumes, and tubers, and sugars are found in plants and fruits. Sugars are the smallest units of carbohydrates, and when they join together, they form starch.

The main role of carbohydrates in our diet is to produce energy. Each gram of carbohydrates provides us with about four calories. Carbohydrates also act as a food store. Our bodies also store carbohydrates in insoluble forms as glycogen or starch. This is because these two carbohydrates are compact. Carbohydrates are also combined with nitrogen to form non-essential amino acids.

In plants, carbohydrates make up part of the cellulose, giving plants strength and structure.


Focus on Fiber

Fiber is an important kind of carbohydrate that comes only from plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables and grains.

The two types of fiber are soluble and non-soluble. Soluble fiber helps control blood sugar and may also lower cholesterol. Non-soluble fiber doesn't appear to lower blood sugar or cholesterol but may help reduce the risk of colon cancer. It also helps maintain bowel function.

When choosing packaged breads, grains and cereals, use food labels to determine how much fiber a food contains. The fiber content of manufactured foods is listed on the Nutrition Facts label.

Adults need between 20 and 35 grams of fiber every day, according to the American Dietetic Association (ADA). The organization reports that Americans currently are only eating between 12 and 17 grams a day.

Good sources of soluble fiber include:

  • Oat bran (although many commercial oat bran muffins and waffles actually have little fiber)
  • Oatmeal
  • Beans and legumes
  • Peas
  • Carrots
  • Sweet potatoes
  • Rice bran
  • Barley
  • Citrus fruits
  • Strawberries
  • Bananas

Good sources of non-soluble fiber include:

  • Whole-wheat breads
  • Wheat cereal
  • Wheat bran
  • Rice (except for white rice)
  • Barley
  • Cabbage
  • Beets
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Turnips
  • Cauliflower
  • Fruits and vegetables with skin

Carbohydrate Counting for People With Diabetes

The three main nutrients--protein, carbohydrate and fat--affect blood sugar differently. Because carbohydrates contain both sugar and starch, they have the biggest impact on blood sugar. All of the carbohydrate you eat gets changed into blood glucose within five minutes to three hours after the food is eaten. For people with diabetes, knowing carbohydrates' effect on blood sugar is important for good health.

How much carbohydrate you eat (whether it's sugar or starch) will determine your blood sugar level after a meal or a snack, so keeping track of your carbohydrate intake is important. Many people with diabetes have maintained good blood sugar control with a technique called carbohydrate counting. Carbohydrate counting not only contributes to better blood sugar control, it also provides more variety in food choices.

There are two ways to count carbs: the simple way and the more advanced method.

With the simple method, you work with a certified diabetes educator/registered dietitian to figure out how many grams of carbohydrate to eat at your meals and snacks. For example, if your nutritionist estimates that you need 75 grams of carbohydrates for breakfast each day you have the information you need to vary your food choices. A breakfast of cereal, milk, yogurt and blueberries will add up to 72 grams. But you might choose a breakfast of bagel, low-sugar jelly and non-fat milk for a total of 78 grams.

The advanced method of carbohydrate counting involves matching your insulin dose to the amount of carbohydrate you eat. You will need to work with professional diabetes educators to determine your ratio of carbohydrate to insulin. In both types of carbohydrate counting, however, knowing serving sizes and reading food labels are both necessary in order to count carbohydrates.




Lesson 5 Based on a 2,000 calorie-a-day diet

Grains:  6 ounces daily
Vegetables:  2.5 cups daily
Fruits: 2 cups daily
Milk:  3 cups daily (kids 2-8, it's 3 cups daily)
Meats & Beans:  5.5 ounces daily 
* Most fats should be from fish, nuts and vegetable oils 
* Limit solid fats such a butter, margerine or lard
* Keep consumption of saturated fats, trans fats and sodium low

* Choose foods low in sugar


Lesson 6    encourager


Heb 10:24-25

24And let us consider how we may spur one another on toward love and good deeds. 25Let us not give up meeting together, as some are in the habit of doing, but let us encourage one another—and all the more as you see the Day approaching.

ist thessalonians 4:18

18Therefore encourage each other with these words.



Psychologist Abraham Maslow first introduced his concept of a hierarchy of needs in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation”1 and his subsequent book, Motivation and Personality.2 This hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other needs.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is most often displayed as a pyramid, with lowest levels of the pyramid made up of the most basic needs and more complex needs are at the top of the pyramid. Needs at the bottom of the pyramid are basic physical requirements including the need for food, water, sleep and warmth. Once these lower-level needs have been met, people can move on to the next level of needs, which are for safety and security.

As people progress up the pyramid, needs become increasingly psychological and social. Soon, the need for love, friendship and intimacy become important. Further up the pyramid, the need for personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment become important. Like Carl Rogers, Maslow emphasized the importance of self-actualization, which is a process of growing and developing as a person to achieve individual potential.

Types of Needs

Maslow believed that these needs are similar to instincts and play a major role in motivating behavior. Physiological, security, social, and esteem needs are deficiency needs (also known as D-needs), meaning that these needs arise do to deprivation. Satisfying these lower-level needs is important in order to avoid unpleasant feelings or consequences.

Maslow term the highest-level of the pyramid a growth need (also known as being needs or B-needs). Growth needs do not stem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to grow as a person.

Five Levels of the Hierarchy of Needs

There are five different levels in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:

  1. Physiological Needs

    These include the most basic needs that are vital to survival, including the need for water, air, food, and sleep. Maslow believed that these needs are the most basic and instinctive needs in the hierarchy because all needs become secondary until these physiological needs are met.
  2. Security Needs

    These include needs for safety and security. Security needs are important for survival, but they are not as demanding as the physiological needs. Examples of security needs include a desire for steady employment, health insurance, safe neighborhoods, and shelter from the environment.
  3. Social Needs

    These include needs for belonging, love, and affection. Maslow considered these needs to be less basic than physiological and security needs. Relationships such as friendships, romantic attachments and families help fulfill this need for companionship and acceptance, as does involvement in social, community or religious groups.
  4. Esteem Needs

    After the first three needs have been satisfied, esteem needs becomes increasingly important. These include the need for things that reflect on self-esteem, personal worth, social recognition, and accomplishment.
  5. Self-actualizing Needs

    This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Self-actualizing people are self-aware, concerned with personal growth, less concerned with the opinions of others, and interested fulfilling their potential.

another version

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is predetermined in order of importance. It is often depicted as a pyramid consisting of five levels: the lowest level is associated with physiological needs, while the uppermost level is associated with self-actualization needs, particularly those related to identity and purpose. Deficiency needs must be met first. Once these are met, seeking to satisfy growth needs drives personal growth. The higher needs in this hierarchy only come into focus when the lower needs in the pyramid are met. Once an individual has moved upwards to the next level, needs in the lower level will no longer be prioritized. If a lower set of needs is no longer being met, the individual will temporarily re-prioritize those needs by focusing attention on the unfulfilled needs, but will not permanently regress to the lower level. For instance, a businessman at the esteem level who is diagnosed with cancer will spend a great deal of time concentrating on his health (physiological needs), but will continue to value his work performance (esteem needs) and will likely return to work during periods of remission.

Deficiency needs

The lower four layers of the pyramid are what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "D-needs": physiological, safety and security, love and belonging, and esteem. With the exception of the lowest (physiological) needs, if these "deficiency needs" are not met, the body gives no physical indication but the individual feels anxious and tense.

Physiological needs

For the most part, physiological needs are obvious - they are the literal requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met (with the exception of clothing and sex), the human body simply cannot continue to function.

Physiological needs include:

Safety needs

With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual's safety needs take over and dominate their behavior. These needs have to do with people's yearning for a predictable, orderly world in which injustice and inconsistency are under control, the familiar frequent and the unfamiliar rare. In the world of work, these safety needs manifest themselves in such things as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, and the like.

For the most part, physiological and safety needs are reasonably well satisfied in the "First World." The obvious exceptions, of course, are people outside the mainstream — the poor and the disadvantaged. If frustration has not led to apathy and weakness, such people still struggle to satisfy the basic physiological and safety needs. They are primarily concerned with survival: obtaining adequate food, clothing, shelter, and seeking justice from the dominant societal groups.

Safety and Security needs include:

  • Personal security
  • Financial security
  • Health and well-being
  • Safety net against accidents/illness and the adverse impacts

Social needs

After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs is social. This psychological aspect of Maslow's hierarchy involves emotionally-based relationships in general, such as:

Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes from a large social group, such as clubs, office culture, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs ("Safety in numbers"), or small social connections (family members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants). They need to love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) by others. In the absence of these elements, many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression. This need for belonging can often overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure; an anorexic, for example, may ignore the need to eat and the security of health for a feeling of control and belonging.


All humans have a need to be respected, to have self-esteem, self-respect. Also known as the belonging need, esteem presents the normal human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution, to feel accepted and self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. Imbalances at this level can result in low self-esteem or an inferiority complex. People with low self-esteem need respect from others. They may seek fame or glory, which again depends on others. It may be noted, however, that many people with low self-esteem will not be able to improve their view of themselves simply by receiving fame, respect, and glory externally, but must first accept themselves internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can also prevent one from obtaining self-esteem on both levels.

Aesthetic needs

The motivation to realize one's own maximum potential and possibilities is considered to be the master motive or the only real motive, all other motives being its various forms. In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the need for self-actualization is the final need that manifests when lower level needs have been satisfied.


Near the end of his life Maslow revealed that there was a level on the hierarchy that was above self-actualization: self-transcendence[7]. "[Transcenders] may be said to be much more often aware of the realm of Being (B-realm and B-cognition), to be living at the level of Being… to have unitive consciousness and “plateau experience” (serene and contemplative B-cognitions rather than climactic ones) … and to have or to have had peak experience (mystic, sacral, ecstatic) with illuminations or insights. Analysis of reality or cognitions which changed their view of the world and of themselves, perhaps occasionally, perhaps as a usual thing."[8] Maslow later did a study on 12 people he believed possessed the qualities of Self-transcendence. Many of the qualities were guilt for the misfortune of someone close, creativity, humility, intelligence, and divergent thinking. They were mainly loners, had deep relationships, and were very normal on the outside. Maslow estimated that only 2% of the population will ever achieve this level of the hierarchy in their lifetime, and that it was absolutely impossible for a child to possess these traits.

Success of offspring

He stated that the achievements and success of his offspring were more satisfying than the personal fulfillment and growth characterized in self-actualization.


Maslow's hierarchy is one of the first theories taught to marketing students as a basis for understanding consumers' motives for action. Marketers have historically looked towards consumers' needs to define their actions in the market. By designing a product that meets a consumers' needs, consumers will more often choose that product than of a competitor. Whichever product better fulfills this void will be chosen more frequently, thus increasing sales. This makes the model relevant to Transpersonal business studies.


While Maslow's theory was regarded as an improvement over previous theories of personality and motivation, it had its detractors. For example, in their extensive review of research which is dependent on Maslow's theory, Wahba and Bridgewell[9] found little evidence for the ranking of needs Maslow described, or even for the existence of a definite hierarchy at all. Chilean economist and philosopher Manfred Max Neef has also argued fundamental human needs are non-hierarchical, and are ontologically universal and invariant in nature - part of the condition of being human; poverty, he argues, is the result of any one of these needs being frustrated, denied or unfulfilled.



Health food: Yale University's Overall Nutritional Quality Index
Last Updated: 3:30PM BST 22/10/2008

Scientists have come up with a guide to the nutritional quality of food, which could revolutionise food labelling and help solve dilemmas for health-conscious shoppers.

Below are a selection of food rankings from Yale University's Overall Nutritional Quality Index (scores out of 100) the Overall Nutritional Quality Index, or ONQI, .

It would rate food items and recipes on a scale of 1 to 100, based on a complex formula that incorporates 30 nutrient factors, such as dietary fiber and added sugar. The system is being rolled out by Yale University-Griffin Hospital Prevention Research Center and Topco Associates LLC, a cooperative of wholesalers, food service companies and supermarkets, including Raley's.


Broccoli 100

Blueberries 100

Okra 100

Orange 100

Green beans 100

Pineapple 99

Radish 99

Summer squash 98

Apple 96

Green cabbage 96

Tomato 96

Clementine 94

Watermelon 94

Mango 93

Red onions 93

Fresh figs 91

Grapes 91

Banana 91

Milk (skimmed) 91

Avocado 89

Oatmeal 88

Atlantic salmon fillet 87

Atlantic halibut fillet 82

Catfish fillet 82

Cod fillet 82

Tilapia fillet 82

Oysters 81

Swordfish steak 81

Prawns 75

Shrimp 75

Clams 71

Monkfish fillet 64

Milk (whole) 52

Scallops 51

Turbot fillet 51

Pasta 50

Turkey breast (skinless) 48

Tinned peas 49

Prunes 45

Chicken breast (boneless) 39

Orange juice 39

Lobster 36

Pork tenderloin 35

Flank steak (Beef) 34

Turkey breast 31

Veal chop 31

Veal leg cutlet 31

Beef tenderloin 30

Chicken drumstick 30

Pork chop (boneless centre cut) 28

Chicken wings 28

Lamb chops (loin) 28

Leg of lamb 28

Ham (whole) 27

Raisins 26

Green olives 24

Bagel 23

Peanut butter 23

Condensed cream of broccoli soup 21

Salted, dry-roasted peanuts 21

Fried egg 18

Swiss cheese 17

Diet fizzy drinks 15

Non-streaky bacon 13

Pretzel sticks 11

Dark chocolate 10

White bread 9

Salami 7

Hot dog 5

Cheese puffs 4

Milk chocolate 3

Apple pie 2

Crackers 2

Fizzy drinks 1

Popsicle 1

NuVal™ Nutritional Scoring System





Lesson 8    TBA




Lesson 9   TBA    




Lesson 10   TBA