Lesson 1 project-
Getting into groups / Establishing rules / Building teamwork /
Developing group roles
Research and Gathering of Information
Preparing the Scrap Book (Group)
Coming up with a recipe for a healthy snack (Individual)
Mathematics component connected to eating wisely
Scrap Book Cover Designing
Show & Tell
Reflections on learning and teamwork
working as a team
Carbohydrate-rich foods are
the primary source of energy for all body functions. Your body breaks down
carbohydrates, or carbs, into fuel for use by your cells and muscles - that's
why eating a moderate amount of carbohydrates is necessary for most people.
There are two types of carbs - sugars and starches.
Sugars are simple
carbohydrates that can be easily digested by your body and include foods like
cake, soda, candy, jellies and fruits.
Starches are complex carbohydrates
take longer to be digested and include foods such as breads, grains, pasta,
tortillas, noodles, fruits and vegetables.
Many carbohydrate-rich foods are loaded with other nutrients. Fruits and
vegetables are not only great carbohydrate sources, they âre also excellent
suppliers of vitamins A and C and many other vitamins and minerals. Most dairy
products are also great sources of carbohydrates.
Some foods rich in
carbohydrates have fewer nutrients. Foods made from sugar (white, brown,
powdered and raw) as well as corn syrup, honey and molasses are simple
carbohydrates that provide little to the diet except extra calories, and too
many extra calories in the diet can lead to excess body fat.
Use the top layer
of the Food Guide Pyramid as your guide, and limit your consumption of sugary
foods - even if they do contain carbohydrates.
Quality Carbohydrate Choices
Do most of the carbs in your diet come from cookies, cakes and sugary foods?
You don't necessarily need to cut back on the number of carbohydrates you eat,
but you should try to eat foods that provide your body with more nutrients and
less fat and sugar. Here are a few tips for making better carbohydrate choices:
- If you eat white bread, switch to bread made with stone ground
whole-wheat flour. You can use it for sandwiches or French toast or you can
grind it into breadcrumbs.
- If you like to snack on crackers that are high in fat and sodium, switch
to whole-wheat crackers. For example, Triscuits are made with whole wheat,
and come in reduced-fat and low-sodium varieties.
- Drinking milk is a great way to load up on quality carbs, but whole milk
has a high fat content. Choose 1%, skim or skim milk fortified with calcium
instead. Begin weaning yourself off whole milk by using skim for cooking and
baking first before using it on cereal.
- Learn how to use sugar and oil replacements in your cooking. Instead of
oil, use applesauce or pureed prunes in muffins and cakes. Instead of sugar,
Splenda and stevia are sweet-tasting replacers that can be used to prepare
your food and drinks.
How Many Carbohydrates Should I Eat?
Most medical experts say that 60 percent of the calories you eat every day
should come from carbohydrates.
To find out how many carbohydrates you need,
multiply the number of calories you need by .6. For example, if you need 2,000
calories per day, 2,000 multiplied by .6 = 1,200. So you know you need 1,200
calories from carbohydrates. There are 4 calories in a gram of carbohydrate.
Take your 1,200 calories and divide by 4 = 300 grams. Knowing the calories and
the carbohydrate grams you need will help you when you are reading a food label.
Role of Carbohydrates
Sugars and starches are important carbohydrates that we
take in often. Carbohydrates provide a great part of the energy in our diets.
Foods rich in carbohydrates, including potatoes, bread, and maize, are usually
the most abundant and cheapest when compared with foods high in protein and fat
content. Carbohydrates are burned during body processes to produce energy,
giving out carbon dioxide and water. Starches are found mainly in grains,
legumes, and tubers, and sugars are found in plants and fruits. Sugars are the
smallest units of carbohydrates, and when they join together, they form starch.
The main role of carbohydrates in our diet is to produce
energy. Each gram of carbohydrates provides us with about four calories.
Carbohydrates also act as a food store. Our bodies also store carbohydrates in
insoluble forms as glycogen or starch. This is because these two carbohydrates
are compact. Carbohydrates are also combined with nitrogen to form non-essential
In plants, carbohydrates make up part of the cellulose,
giving plants strength and structure.
Focus on Fiber
Fiber is an important kind of carbohydrate
that comes only from plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables and grains.
The two types of fiber are soluble and non-soluble. Soluble fiber helps
control blood sugar and may also lower cholesterol. Non-soluble fiber doesn't
appear to lower blood sugar or cholesterol but may help reduce the risk of colon
cancer. It also helps maintain bowel function.
When choosing packaged breads, grains and cereals, use food labels to
determine how much fiber a food contains. The fiber content of manufactured
foods is listed on the Nutrition Facts label.
Adults need between 20 and 35 grams of fiber every day, according to the
American Dietetic Association (ADA). The organization reports that Americans
currently are only eating between 12 and 17 grams a day.
Good sources of soluble fiber include:
- Oat bran (although many commercial oat bran muffins and waffles actually
have little fiber)
- Beans and legumes
- Sweet potatoes
- Rice bran
- Citrus fruits
Good sources of non-soluble fiber include:
- Whole-wheat breads
- Wheat cereal
- Wheat bran
- Rice (except for white rice)
- Brussels sprouts
- Fruits and vegetables with skin
Carbohydrate Counting for People With Diabetes
The three main nutrients--protein, carbohydrate and fat--affect blood sugar
differently. Because carbohydrates contain both sugar and starch, they have the
biggest impact on blood sugar. All of the carbohydrate you eat gets changed into
blood glucose within five minutes to three hours after the food is eaten. For
people with diabetes, knowing carbohydrates' effect on blood sugar is important
for good health.
How much carbohydrate you eat (whether it's sugar or starch) will determine
your blood sugar level after a meal or a snack, so keeping track of your
carbohydrate intake is important. Many people with diabetes have maintained good
blood sugar control with a technique called carbohydrate counting. Carbohydrate
counting not only contributes to better blood sugar control, it also provides
more variety in food choices.
There are two ways to count carbs: the simple way and the more advanced
With the simple method, you work with a certified diabetes
educator/registered dietitian to figure out how many grams of carbohydrate to
eat at your meals and snacks. For example, if your nutritionist estimates that
you need 75 grams of carbohydrates for breakfast each day you have the
information you need to vary your food choices. A breakfast of cereal, milk,
yogurt and blueberries will add up to 72 grams. But you might choose a breakfast
of bagel, low-sugar jelly and non-fat milk for a total of 78 grams.
The advanced method of carbohydrate counting involves matching your insulin
dose to the amount of carbohydrate you eat. You will need to work with
professional diabetes educators to determine your ratio of carbohydrate to
insulin. In both types of carbohydrate counting, however, knowing serving sizes
and reading food labels are both necessary in order to count carbohydrates.
MORE ABOUT CARBOHYDRATES
Lesson 5 Based
on a 2,000 calorie-a-day diet
Grains: 6 ounces daily
Vegetables: 2.5 cups
Fruits: 2 cups
cups daily (kids 2-8, it's 3 cups daily)
Meats & Beans:
5.5 ounces daily
* Most fats should be from fish,
nuts and vegetable oils
* Limit solid fats such a
butter, margerine or lard
* Keep consumption of
saturated fats, trans fats and sodium
* Choose foods low in
ASK YOUR FRIENDS TO READ THESE
let us consider how we may spur one another on toward love and good deeds.
25Let us not give
up meeting together, as some are in the habit of doing, but let us encourage
one another—and all the more as you see the Day approaching.
encourage each other with these words.
MASLOW HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
Psychologist Abraham Maslow
first introduced his concept of a hierarchy of needs in his 1943
paper “A Theory of Human Motivation”1 and his
subsequent book, Motivation and Personality.2 This
hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic
needs before moving on to other needs.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is
most often displayed as a pyramid, with lowest levels of the
pyramid made up of the most basic needs and more complex needs
are at the top of the pyramid. Needs at the bottom of the
pyramid are basic physical requirements including the need for
food, water, sleep and warmth. Once these lower-level needs have
been met, people can move on to the next level of needs, which
are for safety and security.
As people progress up
the pyramid, needs become increasingly psychological and social.
Soon, the need for love, friendship and intimacy become
important. Further up the pyramid, the need for personal esteem
and feelings of accomplishment become important. Like
Carl Rogers, Maslow emphasized the importance of
self-actualization, which is a process of growing and developing
as a person to achieve individual potential.
Types of Needs
Maslow believed that
these needs are similar to instincts and play a major role in
motivating behavior. Physiological, security, social, and esteem
needs are deficiency needs (also known as D-needs),
meaning that these needs arise do to deprivation. Satisfying
these lower-level needs is important in order to avoid
unpleasant feelings or consequences.
Maslow term the
highest-level of the pyramid a growth need (also known as
being needs or B-needs). Growth needs do not stem
from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to grow as a
Five Levels of the
Hierarchy of Needs
There are five different
levels in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:
- Physiological Needs
These include the most basic needs that are vital to
survival, including the need for water, air, food, and
sleep. Maslow believed that these needs are the most basic
and instinctive needs in the hierarchy because all needs
become secondary until these physiological needs are met.
- Security Needs
These include needs for safety and security. Security needs
are important for survival, but they are not as demanding as
the physiological needs. Examples of security needs include
a desire for steady employment, health insurance, safe
neighborhoods, and shelter from the environment.
- Social Needs
These include needs for belonging, love, and affection.
Maslow considered these needs to be less basic than
physiological and security needs. Relationships such as
friendships, romantic attachments and families help fulfill
this need for companionship and acceptance, as does
involvement in social, community or religious groups.
- Esteem Needs
After the first three needs have been satisfied, esteem
needs becomes increasingly important. These include the need
for things that reflect on self-esteem, personal worth,
social recognition, and accomplishment.
This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Self-actualizing people are self-aware, concerned with
personal growth, less concerned with the opinions of others,
and interested fulfilling their potential.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is predetermined in order of
importance. It is often depicted as a pyramid consisting of
five levels: the lowest level is associated with
physiological needs, while the uppermost level is associated
with self-actualization needs, particularly those related to
identity and purpose. Deficiency needs must be met first.
Once these are met, seeking to satisfy growth needs drives
personal growth. The higher needs in this hierarchy only
come into focus when the lower needs in the pyramid are met.
Once an individual has moved upwards to the next level,
needs in the lower level will no longer be prioritized. If a
lower set of needs is no longer being met, the individual
will temporarily re-prioritize those needs by focusing
attention on the unfulfilled needs, but will not permanently
regress to the lower level. For instance, a businessman at
the esteem level who is diagnosed with cancer will spend a
great deal of time concentrating on his health
(physiological needs), but will continue to value his work
performance (esteem needs) and will likely return to work
during periods of remission.
The lower four layers of the pyramid are what Maslow
called "deficiency needs" or "D-needs": physiological,
safety and security, love and belonging, and esteem. With
the exception of the lowest (physiological) needs, if these
"deficiency needs" are not met, the body gives no physical
indication but the individual feels anxious and tense.
For the most part, physiological needs are obvious - they
are the literal requirements for human survival. If these
requirements are not met (with the exception of
the human body simply cannot continue to function.
Physiological needs include:
With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the
individual's safety needs take over and dominate their
behavior. These needs have to do with people's yearning for
a predictable, orderly world in which injustice and
inconsistency are under control, the familiar frequent and
the unfamiliar rare. In the world of work, these safety
needs manifest themselves in such things as a preference for
job security, grievance procedures for protecting the
individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts,
insurance policies, and the like.
For the most part, physiological and safety needs are
reasonably well satisfied in the "First World." The obvious
exceptions, of course, are people outside the mainstream —
the poor and the disadvantaged. If frustration has not led
to apathy and weakness, such people still struggle to
satisfy the basic physiological and safety needs. They are
primarily concerned with survival: obtaining adequate food,
clothing, shelter, and seeking justice from the dominant
Safety and Security needs include:
- Personal security
- Financial security
- Health and well-being
- Safety net against accidents/illness and the adverse
After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the
third layer of human needs is social. This psychological
aspect of Maslow's hierarchy involves emotionally-based
relationships in general, such as:
Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance,
whether it comes from a large social group, such as clubs,
religious groups, professional organizations, sports
in numbers"), or small social connections (family
members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues,
confidants). They need to love and be loved (sexually and
non-sexually) by others. In the absence of these elements,
many people become susceptible to
social anxiety, and
clinical depression. This need for belonging can often
overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on
the strength of the peer pressure; an anorexic, for example,
may ignore the need to eat and the security of health for a
feeling of control and belonging.
All humans have a need to be respected, to have
self-esteem, self-respect. Also known as the belonging need,
esteem presents the normal human desire to be accepted and
valued by others. People need to engage themselves to gain
recognition and have an activity or activities that give the
person a sense of contribution, to feel accepted and
self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. Imbalances at
this level can result in low self-esteem or an
inferiority complex. People with low self-esteem need
respect from others. They may seek fame or glory, which
again depends on others. It may be noted, however, that many
people with low self-esteem will not be able to improve
their view of themselves simply by receiving fame, respect,
and glory externally, but must first accept themselves
internally. Psychological imbalances such as
depression can also prevent one from obtaining
self-esteem on both levels.
The motivation to realize one's own maximum potential and
possibilities is considered to be the master motive or the
only real motive, all other motives being its various forms.
In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the need for
self-actualization is the final need that manifests when
lower level needs have been satisfied.
Near the end of his life Maslow revealed that there was a
level on the hierarchy that was above self-actualization:
"[Transcenders] may be said to be much more often aware of
the realm of Being (B-realm and B-cognition), to be living
at the level of Being… to have unitive consciousness and
“plateau experience” (serene and contemplative B-cognitions
rather than climactic ones) … and to have or to have had
peak experience (mystic, sacral, ecstatic) with
illuminations or insights. Analysis of reality or cognitions
which changed their view of the world and of themselves,
perhaps occasionally, perhaps as a usual thing."
Maslow later did a study on 12 people he believed possessed
the qualities of Self-transcendence. Many of the qualities
were guilt for the misfortune of someone close, creativity,
humility, intelligence, and divergent thinking. They were
mainly loners, had deep relationships, and were very normal
on the outside. Maslow estimated that only 2% of the
population will ever achieve this level of the hierarchy in
their lifetime, and that it was absolutely impossible for a
child to possess these traits.
Success of offspring
He stated that the achievements and success of his
offspring were more satisfying than the personal fulfillment
and growth characterized in self-actualization.
Maslow's hierarchy is one of the first theories taught to
marketing students as a basis for understanding consumers'
motives for action. Marketers have historically looked
towards consumers' needs to define their actions in the
market. By designing a product that meets a consumers'
needs, consumers will more often choose that product than of
a competitor. Whichever product better fulfills this void
will be chosen more frequently, thus increasing sales. This
makes the model relevant to
Transpersonal business studies.
While Maslow's theory was regarded as an improvement over
previous theories of
motivation, it had its detractors. For example, in their
extensive review of research which is dependent on Maslow's
theory, Wahba and Bridgewell
found little evidence for the ranking of needs Maslow
described, or even for the existence of a definite hierarchy
at all. Chilean economist and philosopher
Manfred Max Neef has also argued
fundamental human needs are non-hierarchical, and are
ontologically universal and invariant in nature - part
of the condition of being human;
poverty, he argues, is the result of any one of these
needs being frustrated, denied or unfulfilled.
OVERALL NUTRITIONAL QUALITY
INDEx - ONQI
Health food: Yale University's
Overall Nutritional Quality Index
Last Updated: 3:30PM BST 22/10/2008
Scientists have come up with a
guide to the nutritional quality of food, which could revolutionise food
labelling and help solve dilemmas for health-conscious shoppers.
Below are a selection of food
rankings from Yale University's Overall Nutritional Quality Index (scores
out of 100) the Overall Nutritional Quality Index, or ONQI, .
It would rate food items and
recipes on a scale of 1 to 100, based on a complex formula that incorporates
30 nutrient factors, such as dietary fiber and
added sugar. The system is being rolled out by Yale
University-Griffin Hospital Prevention Research Center and Topco Associates
LLC, a cooperative of wholesalers, food service companies and supermarkets,
ONQI RANKING OF FOOD:
Green beans 100
Summer squash 98
Green cabbage 96
Red onions 93
Fresh figs 91
Milk (skimmed) 91
Atlantic salmon fillet 87
Atlantic halibut fillet 82
Catfish fillet 82
Cod fillet 82
Tilapia fillet 82
Swordfish steak 81
Monkfish fillet 64
Milk (whole) 52
Turbot fillet 51
Turkey breast (skinless) 48
Tinned peas 49
Chicken breast (boneless) 39
Orange juice 39
Pork tenderloin 35
Flank steak (Beef) 34
Turkey breast 31
Veal chop 31
Veal leg cutlet 31
Beef tenderloin 30
Chicken drumstick 30
Pork chop (boneless centre cut) 28
Chicken wings 28
Lamb chops (loin) 28
Leg of lamb 28
Ham (whole) 27
Green olives 24
Peanut butter 23
Condensed cream of broccoli soup 21
Salted, dry-roasted peanuts 21
Fried egg 18
Swiss cheese 17
Diet fizzy drinks 15
Non-streaky bacon 13
Pretzel sticks 11
Dark chocolate 10
White bread 9
Hot dog 5
Cheese puffs 4
Milk chocolate 3
Apple pie 2
Fizzy drinks 1
OVERALL NUTRITIONAL QUALITY VALUE
Lesson 8 TBA
Lesson 9 TBA
Lesson 10 TBA