Lesson 1 HUMAN
INTERACTIVE HUMAN BODY
this SPECIAL periodIC TABLE PICTURE
MIXTURE & COMPOUNDS
COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES
Compounds and Mixtures
Have you ever mixed two
things together, just to see what would happen? Did you ever wish
that you hadn’t done what you did? Were you able to separate them
back into the two things that you started with? Sometimes when you
mix things together you can go back to the things that you started
with. If you mixed potato chips and gummy worms together, you could
always pick the gummy worms out of the potato chips if you didn’t
like the two of them together. Sometimes, though, something happens
when you mix two things together. You make something new. You can’t
go back to what you started with.
Matter is an interesting
thing. It is something that can change. It can change into a
different phase—from solid to liquid or liquid to gas. It can change
size and shape. Matter can even change its composition. Matter can
be combined with other kinds of matter. What happens when matter is
Sometimes when matter is
combined, a mixture is formed. A mixture is two or more elements or
compounds that are combined in a way that do not form chemical
bonds. Mixtures do not have an exact composition. The mixture does
not create a new substance. A mixture can be separated into its
original pieces. One example of a mixture is concrete. Concrete is
made from sand, rock and water, but the concrete in your driveway is
not exactly the same as the concrete at the sidewalk in front of
There are two words that
are used to describe mixtures: homogeneous and heterogeneous. The
prefix homo-means “same”. The prefix hetero-means “different”. A
homogeneous mixture is one that is the same throughout the mixture.
An example of a homogeneous mixture is salt water. If you dissolve
salt into a cup of water, then pour the mixture into four cups, the
salt water will be the same in all four cups. A heterogeneous
mixture is one that is different throughout the mixture. For
example, if you mixed chocolate chips and walnuts together and
poured the mixture into four cups, every cup would be different. One
cup might have seven chocolate chips and four walnuts. Another cup
might have five chocolate chips and six walnuts. Another cup might
contain only chocolate chips or only walnuts.
There are three
different kinds of mixtures: solutions, suspensions, and colloids.
are homogeneous mixtures. A solution is one type of matter dissolved
in a liquid or gas. A solution can be made by dissolving salt or
sugar in water. Another example of a solution is water dissolved in
heterogeneous mixtures. The different pieces can be mixed
together, but they will eventually settle out. An example of a
suspension is oil and vinegar. They can be mixed together by shaking
the two together. After a short amount of time, the oil will
separate from the vinegar and rise to the top.
that are similar to both solutions and suspensions. Colloids will
not separate, but the particles are visible in the mixture. In a
colloid, the particles can be seen when a light is shown onto the
mixture. Whipped cream is a colloid of air in cream. Smoke is a
colloid formed when ash is mixed in air. The milk that we buy in the
grocery store is also a colloid formed by combining milk and
Sometimes when matter is
combined, something special happens. A compound is formed. You have
already learned that a compound is a molecule made from two or more
atoms. When the atoms join together, they form a chemical bond. A
new substance is made. All compounds are homogeneous. Compounds have
an exact composition that never changes. For example, water is only
made by combining two hydrogen atoms with one oxygen atom. Every
molecule of water is the same.
does not have the same properties as the matter that formed it. The
compound is a new substance with new properties. Water is a liquid
and is created by combining two gases, hydrogen and oxygen. Sodium
is an explosive solid and chlorine is a poisonous gas. When the two
combine, they form a compound, salt, that is safe enough for us to
use every day to season our food.
states of matter
Lesson 3 WHAT IS
physis – φύσις meaning "nature") is a natural science; it is the study of
matter and its motion through spacetime and all that derives from these,
such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of
nature, conducted in order to understand how the world and universe behave.
Physics is both significant and influential, in part because advances in its
understanding have often translated into new technologies, but also because
new ideas in physics often resonate with the other sciences, mathematics and
For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism or nuclear
physics led directly to the development of new products which have
dramatically transformed modern-day society (e.g., television, computers,
and domestic appliances); advances in thermodynamics led to the development
of motorized transport; and advances in mechanics inspired the development
Physics covers a wide range of phenomena, from the smallest sub-atomic
particles (protons, neutrons and electrons), to the largest galaxies.
Included in this are the very most basic objects from which all other things
are composed, and therefore physics is sometimes said to be the "fundamental
Physics aims to describe the various phenomena that occur in nature in terms
of simpler phenomena. Thus, physics aims to both connect the things we see
around us to root causes, and then to try to connect these causes together
in the hope of finding an ultimate reason for why nature is as it is.
For example, the ancient Chinese observed that certain rocks (lodestone)
were attracted to one another by some invisible force. This effect was later
called magnetism, and was first rigorously studied in the 17th century.
A little earlier than the Chinese, the ancient Greeks knew of other objects
such as amber, that when rubbed with fur would cause a similar invisible
attraction between the two. This was also first studied rigorously in the
17th century, and came to be called electricity.
Thus, physics had come to understand two observations of nature in terms of
some root cause (electricity and magnetism). However, further work in the
19th century revealed that these two forces were just two different aspects
of one force – electromagnetism. This process of "unifying" forces continues
today (see section Current research for more information).
Physics uses the scientific method to test the validity of a physical
theory, using a methodical approach to compare the implications of the
theory in question with the associated conclusions drawn from experiments
and observations conducted to test it. Experiments and observations are to
be collected and matched with the predictions and hypotheses made by a
theory, thus aiding in the determination or the validity/invalidity of the
Theories which are very well supported by data and have never failed any
competent empirical test are often called scientific laws, or natural laws.
Of course, all theories, including those called scientific laws, can always
be replaced by more accurate, generalized statements if a disagreement of
theory with observed data is ever found.
Condensed matter physics
Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the
macroscopic physical properties of matter. In particular, it is concerned
with the "condensed" phases that appear whenever the number of constituents
in a system is extremely large and the interactions between the constituents
are strong.The most familiar examples of condensed phases are solids and
liquids, which arise from the bonding and electromagnetic force between
atoms. More exotic condensed phases include the superfluid and the
Bose-Einstein condensate found in certain atomic systems at very low
temperature, the superconducting phase exhibited by conduction electrons in
certain materials, and the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases of
spins on atomic lattices.
Condensed matter physics is by far the largest field of contemporary
physics. Historically, condensed matter physics grew out of solid-state
physics, which is now considered one of its main subfields. The term
condensed matter physics was apparently coined by Philip Anderson when he
renamed his research group — previously solid-state theory — in 1967.
In 1978, the Division of Solid State Physics at the American Physical
Society was renamed as the Division of Condensed Matter Physics.
Condensed matter physics has a large overlap with chemistry, materials
science, nanotechnology and engineering.
Atomic, molecular, and optical physics
Atomic, molecular, and optical physics (AMO) is the study of matter-matter
and light-matter interactions on the scale of single atoms or structures
containing a few atoms. The three areas are grouped together because of
their interrelationships, the similarity of methods used, and the
commonality of the energy scales that are relevant. All three areas include
both classical and quantum treatments; they can treat their subject from a
microscopic view (in contrast to a macroscopic view).
Atomic physics studies the electron shells of atoms. Current research
focuses on activities in quantum control, cooling and trapping of atoms and
ions, low-temperature collision dynamics, the collective behavior of atoms
in weakly interacting gases (Bose-Einstein Condensates and dilute Fermi
degenerate systems), precision measurements of fundamental constants, and
the effects of electron correlation on structure and dynamics. Atomic
physics is influenced by the nucleus (see, e.g., hyperfine splitting), but
intra-nuclear phenomenon such as fission and fusion are considered part of
high energy physics.
Molecular physics focuses on multi-atomic structures and their internal and
external interactions with matter and light. Optical physics is distinct
from optics in that it tends to focus not on the control of classical light
fields by macroscopic objects, but on the fundamental properties of optical
fields and their interactions with matter in the microscopic realm.
High energy/particle physics
Particle physics is the study of the elementary constituents of matter and
energy, and the interactions between them. It may also be called "high
energy physics", because many elementary particles do not occur naturally,
but are created only during high energy collisions of other particles, as
can be detected in particle accelerators.
Currently, the interactions of elementary particles are described by the
Standard Model. The model accounts for the 12 known particles of matter that
interact via the strong, weak, and electromagnetic fundamental forces.
Dynamics are described in terms of matter particles exchanging messenger
particles that carry the forces. These messenger particles are known as
gluons; W− and W+ and Z bosons; and the photons, respectively. The Standard
Model also predicts a particle known as the Higgs boson, the existence of
which has not yet been verified.
Astrophysics and astronomy are the application of the theories and methods
of physics to the study of stellar structure, stellar evolution, the origin
of the solar system, and related problems of cosmology. Because astrophysics
is a broad subject, astrophysicists typically apply many disciplines of
physics, including mechanics, electromagnetism, statistical mechanics,
thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, nuclear and particle physics,
and atomic and molecular physics.
The discovery by Karl Jansky in 1931 that radio signals were emitted by
celestial bodies initiated the science of radio astronomy. Most recently,
the frontiers of astronomy have been expanded by space exploration.
Perturbations and interference from the earth’s atmosphere make space-based
observations necessary for infrared, ultraviolet, gamma-ray, and X-ray
Physical cosmology is the study of the formation and evolution of the
universe on its largest scales. Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity plays
a central role in all modern cosmological theories. In the early 20th
century, Hubble's discovery that the universe was expanding, as shown by the
Hubble diagram, prompted rival explanations known as the steady state
universe and the Big Bang.
The Big Bang was confirmed by the success of Big Bang nucleosynthesis and
the discovery of the cosmic microwave background in 1964. The Big Bang model
rests on two theoretical pillars: Albert Einstein's general relativity and
the cosmological principle. Cosmologists have recently established a precise
model of the evolution of the universe, which includes cosmic inflation,
dark energy and dark matter.
Fundamental physics - The basic domains of physics
While physics aims to discover universal laws, its theories lie in explicit
domains of applicability. Loosely speaking, the laws of classical physics
accurately describe systems whose important length scales are greater than
the atomic scale and whose motions are much slower than the speed of light.
Outside of this domain, observations do not match their predictions. Albert
Einstein contributed the framework of special relativity, which replaced
notions of absolute time and space with spacetime and allowed an accurate
description of systems whose components have speeds approaching the speed of
light. Max Planck, Erwin Schrödinger, and others introduced quantum
mechanics, a probabilistic notion of particles and interactions that allowed
an accurate description of atomic and subatomic scales. Later, quantum field
theory unified quantum mechanics and special relativity. General relativity
allowed for a dynamical, curved spacetime, with which highly massive systems
and the large-scale structure of the universe can be well described. General
relativity has not yet been unified with the other fundamental descriptions.
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